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Introduction to "The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation": Constitutions

Quick References

Constitution Citation..................R11
Id. Rules, Generally...................R4.1

Geographic Abbreviations............T10
Subdivision Abbreviations............T16

Typeface Conventions

Constitution Abbreviation - combined geographic and constitution abbreviations in small caps typeface

Subdivisions - Regular typeface

Explanatory Phrases - italicized if citing the full repealing/amending provision



This guide is currently being updated to reflect the recent changes made in The Bluebook (20th edition). Please be aware that pages containing this notice may contain out-of-date information.

Basic Structure of a Constitution Citation

Federal & State Constitutions - Cite constitutions by combining the abbreviated geographic region from Table 10 and the word "CONST." in small caps typeface. Abbreviate subdivisions according to Table 16.

U.S. CONST. art. I, § 9, cl. 2.
U.S. CONST. amend. XIV, § 2.
LA. CONST. art. X, pt. IV.

Current Provisions - If the constitutional provision is still in force, no date is needed.

Repealed/Amended Provisions - Indicate parenthetically either the year and action, or cite the repealing/amending provision in full.

U.S. CONST. amend. XVIII (repealed 1933).
U.S. CONST. amend. XVIII, repealed by U.S. CONST. amend. XXI.

U.S. CONST. art. I, § 3, cl. 1 (amended 1913).
U.S. CONST. art. I, § 3, cl. 1, amended by U.S. CONST. amend. XVII.

Short Form - Do not use a short form other than "id." where appropriate for constitutions.

Constitution Abbreviations

Only abbreviate words in Table 10 and Table 16 when citation is used in a footnote. If a constitution is referred to in a textual sentence, the citation must be written out fully, or the provision referred to by name.

U.S. Constitution: subdivistions and names are capitalized and in regular typeface

U.S. CONST. art. IV, § 1
Article IV, Section 1
the Full Faith and Credit Clause

State Constitutions: subdivistions and names are not capitalized and in regular typeface

S.C. CONST. art. I, § 12
article I, section 12
the double jeopardy clause


"Small caps" typeface can be found in the Font menu in Microsoft Word. If your word processing program does not have this option, you may have to decrease the font size for some letters manually.