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Introduction to "The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation": Electronic Sources

Quick References

Electronic Sources
Basic Citation Forms.................R18.1
The Internet............................R18.2
Commercial Databases.............R18.3
CD-ROM and Storage Media......R18.4
Microform................................R18.5
Video.....................................R18.6
Audio.....................................R18.7
Short Forms............................R18.8

Typeface Conventions

Typefaces for electronic sources vary. Typically, adopt typeface conventions of periodical sources with author in regular type, title in italics, and source in small caps.

 

Notice


This guide is currently being updated to reflect the recent changes made in The Bluebook (20th edition). Please be aware that pages containing this notice may contain out-of-date information.

Basic Structure of an Internet Citation

 

Citation to electronic sources tends to follow the print counterpart. Basic structure can vary considerably, but some common examples are shown in the graphic above. Some general rules apply to electronic sources:

Generally - Cite to the print source if it is available, unless the electronic version is an exact copy. However, a parallel cite to an electronic source introduced by the explanatory phrase "available at" may be used if it improves access.

Direct Citation - Internet sources are cited directly if nonexistant in print, or so obscure as to be practically unavailable.

Page Titles - If citing to a webpage itself, use the title in the browser title bar or from the main heading on the page.

Date & Time - Use the date associated with the cited material as it appears on the website. If unavailable, indicate when the page was last updated or visited.

"Supra" Short Form - Use the author's last name (or article title if no author) along with supra, indicating the original footnote the work was fully cited in.

Electronic Source Abbreviations

Author - Words in Table 6 and Rule 10.2.1(c), geographic regions in Table 10, and common acronyms in Rule 6.1(b)

Article Title - Nothing

Source Title - Words in Table 13 and Table 10

Tips

Only include the phrase "available at" if the URL given is a parallel cite to a print source. Otherwise, simply indicate the URL of an electronic source after a comma.


For materials only available online, the short form does not require the URL to be repeated.